By the 5th millennium B.C., the inhabitants of the Nile Valley had already started to organise themselves into village communities.
They had begun the practice of agriculture and animal husbandry. Funerary goods that accompanied the dead reveal a complex
society whose people did not enjoy equal rights and in which the elite asserted their status through the possession of luxurious
objects (flint knives, palettes, copper objects, etc). Writing appears towards 3200 B.C., with the first kings of Egypt, regrouped
into the so-called Dynasty "0". In the course of an accelerated process of social acculturation, these communities witnessed the
advent of a new epoch, namely the emergence of the State that would eventually lead to the Pharaonic Period.

Archéo-Nil encompasses all themes that are devoted to this period, from the development of the first agricultural communities
during the Neolithic through until the Early Dynastic Periods. Studies published in the Archéo-Nil Journal cover a wide and diverse
geographical area including the Nile Valley and neighbouring deserts; extending into Central Africa, the Sahara and the Eastern
Mediterranean Sea. The themes that concern the Archéo-Nil focus upon methodological, theoretical and practical implications.